Antarktis-bibliografi er en database over den norske Antarktis-litteraturen.

Hensikten med bibliografien er å synliggjøre norsk antarktisforskning og annen virksomhet/historie i det ekstreme sør. Bibliografien er ikke komplett, spesielt ikke for nyere forskning, men den blir oppdatert.

Norsk er her definert som minst én norsk forfatter, publikasjonssted Norge eller publikasjon som har utspring i norsk forskningsprosjekt.

Antarktis er her definert som alt sør for 60 grader. I tillegg har vi tatt med Bouvetøya.

Det er ingen avgrensing på språk (men det meste av innholdet er på norsk eller engelsk). Eldre norske antarktispublikasjoner (den eldste er fra 1894) er dominert av kvalfangst og ekspedisjoner. I nyere tid er det den internasjonale polarforskninga som dominerer. Bibliografien er tverrfaglig; den dekker både naturvitenskapene, politikk, historie osv. Skjønnlitteratur er også inkludert, men ikke avisartikler eller upublisert materiale.

Til høyre finner du en «HELP-knapp» for informasjon om søkemulighetene i databasen. Mange referanser har lett synlige lenker til fulltekstversjon av det aktuelle dokumentet. For de fleste tidsskriftartiklene er det også lagt inn sammendrag.

Bibliografien er produsert ved Norsk Polarinstitutts bibliotek.

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Full bibliography 2,812 resources

  • Despite the exclusion of the Southern Ocean from assessments of progress towards achieving the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has taken on the mantle of progressing efforts to achieve it. Within the CBD, Aichi Target 11 represents an agreed commitment to protect 10% of the global coastal and marine environment. Adopting an ethos of presenting the best available scientific evidence to support policy makers, CCAMLR has progressed this by designating two Marine Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean, with three others under consideration. The region of Antarctica known as Dronning Maud Land (DML; 20°W to 40°E) and the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean that abuts it conveniently spans one region under consideration for spatial protection. To facilitate both an open and transparent process to provide the vest available scientific evidence for policy makers to formulate management options, we review the body of physical, geochemical and biological knowledge of the marine environment of this region. The level of scientific knowledge throughout the seascape abutting DML is polarized, with a clear lack of data in its eastern part which is presumably related to differing levels of research effort dedicated by national Antarctic programmes in the region. The lack of basic data on fundamental aspects of the physical, geological and biological nature of eastern DML make predictions of future trends difficult to impossible, with implications for the provision of management advice including spatial management. Finally, by highlighting key knowledge gaps across the scientific disciplines our review also serves to provide guidance to future research across this important region.

  • Species with similar ecological requirements that overlap in range tend to segregate their niches to minimize competition for resources. However, the niche segregation possibilities for centrally foraging predators that breed on isolated Subantarctic islands may be reduced by spatial constraints and limitations in the availability of alternative prey. In this study we examined spatial and trophic aspects of the foraging niches of two sympatrically breeding penguin species, macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus; MAC) and chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus; CHIN) penguins, at Bouvetøya over two breeding seasons. To measure at-sea movements and diving behaviour, 90 MACs and 49 CHINs were equipped with GPS loggers and dive recorders during two austral summer breeding seasons (2014/15 and 2017/18). In addition, blood samples from tracked birds were analysed for stable isotopes to obtain dietary information. CHINs displayed marked interannual variation in foraging behaviour, diving deeper, utilizing a larger foraging area and displaying enriched values of δ15N in 2014/15 compared to the 2017/18 breeding season. In contrast, MACs dove to similar depths and showed similar δ15N values, while consistently utilizing larger foraging areas compared to CHINs. We suggest that low krill abundances in the waters around Bouvetøya during the 2014/15 season resulted in CHINs shifting toward a diet that increased their niche overlap with MACs. Our findings may partly explain the decreasing number of breeding CHINs at the world’s most remote island, Bouvetøya, while also highlighting the importance of characterizing niche overlap of species using multi-season data sets.

  • The coastal Droning Maud Land in East Antarctica is characterized by small ice shelves with numbers of promontories and locally grounded isles, both called ice rises. These ice rises are typically dome-shaped and surface elevations are hundreds of meters above the surrounding ice shelves, which cause strong orographic effects on surface mass balance (SMB). We conducted shallow ice-penetrating radar sounding to visualize firn stratigraphy in the top 35 m over ~400 km of profiles across the Nivlisen Ice Shelf, and in a grid pattern over two adjacent ice rises (Djupranen and Leningradkollen). We tracked six reflectors (isochrones) and dated them using two ice cores taken at the ice rise summits, from which SMB over six periods in the past three decades was retrieved. The overall SMB pattern across the ice shelf remained similar for all periods; however, the eastwest contrast in SMB varies by a factor of 1.5–2 between the Leningradkollen and Djupranen grounding lines. The SMB patterns over the ice rises are more varied owing to complex interactions between topography, snowfall and wind. We use our results to evaluate the regional climate model RACMO2.3p2 in terms of the spatial SMB distribution and temporal changes over the ice shelf and ice rises at regional scale.

  • Polynyas represent regions of enhanced primary production because of the low, or absent, sea-ice cover coupled with the proximity of nutrient sources. However, studies throughout the Southern Ocean suggest elevated primary production does not necessarily result in increased carbon export. Three coastal polynyas in East Antarctica and an off-shelf region were visited during the austral summer from December 2016 to January 2017 to examine the vertical distribution and concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC). Carbon export was also examined using thorium-234 (234Th) as a proxy at two of the polynyas. Our results show that concentrations and integrated POC stocks were higher within the polynyas compared to the off-shelf sites. Within the polynyas, vertical POC concentrations were higher in the Mertz and Ninnis polynyas compared to the Dalton polynya. Similarly, higher carbon export was measured in the diatom-dominated Mertz polynya, where large particles (>53 μm) represented a significant fraction of the particulate 234Th and POC (average 50% and 39%, respectively), compared to the small flagellate-dominated Dalton polynya, where almost all the particulate 234Th and POC were found in the smaller size fraction (1–53 μm). The POC to Chlorophyll-a ratios suggest that organic matter below the mixed layer in the polynyas consisted largely of fresh phytoplankton at this time of the year. In combination with a parallel study on phytoplankton production at these sites, we find that increased primary production at these polynyas does lead to greater concentrations and export of POC and a higher POC export efficiency.

  • Clouds have a large effect on the radiation budget and represent a major source of uncertainty in climate models. Supercooled liquid clouds can exist at temperatures as low as 235 K, and the radiative effect of these clouds depends on the complex refractive index (CRI) of liquid water. Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that the liquid-water CRI is temperature-dependent, but corroboration with field measurements is difficult. Here we present measurements of the downwelling infrared radiance and in-situ measurements of supercooled liquid water in a cloud at temperatures as low as 240 K, made at South Pole Station in 2001. These results demonstrate that including the temperature dependence of the liquid-water CRI is essential for accurate calculations of radiative transfer through supercooled liquid clouds. Furthermore, we show that when cloud properties are retrieved from infrared radiances (using the spectral range 500–1,200 cm−1) spurious ice may be retrieved if the 300 K CRI is used for cold liquid clouds (∼240 K). These results have implications for radiative transfer in climate models as well as for retrievals of cloud properties from infrared radiance spectra.

  • Allometric relationships between body properties of animals are useful for a wide variety of purposes, such as estimation of biomass, growth, population structure, bioenergetic modelling and carbon flux studies. This study summarizes allometric relationships of zooplankton and nekton species that play major roles in polar marine food webs. Measurements were performed on 639 individuals of 15 species sampled during three expeditions in the Southern Ocean (winter and summer) and 2374 individuals of 14 species sampled during three expeditions in the Arctic Ocean (spring and summer). The information provided by this study fills current knowledge gaps on relationships between length and wet/dry mass of understudied animals, such as various gelatinous zooplankton, and of animals from understudied seasons and maturity stages, for example, for the krill Thysanoessa macrura and larval Euphausia superba caught in winter. Comparisons show that there is intra-specific variation in length–mass relationships of several species depending on season, e.g. for the amphipod Themisto libellula. To investigate the potential use of generalized regression models, comparisons between sexes, maturity stages or age classes were performed and are discussed, such as for the several krill species and T. libellula. Regression model comparisons on age classes of the fish E. antarctica were inconclusive about their general use. Other allometric measurements performed on carapaces, eyes, heads, telsons, tails and otoliths provided models that proved to be useful for estimating length or mass in, e.g. diet studies. In some cases, the suitability of these models may depend on species or developmental stages.

  • To assess the impact of human activities and other factors on the levels of highly toxic trace elements in the environment, the contents of eight highly toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in feathers of 15 bird species from the Prydz Bay region in the Antarctic, Ny-Alsund region in the Arctic, and eastern China were evaluated in this study. Results showed that feathers collected from the Antarctic showed the highest As, Cu, and Hg contents (1.65–2.85, 9.58–18.56, and 4.77–8.76 μg/g dw, respectively) of the different study areas, whereas Arctic feathers exhibited the highest mean Pb levels (1.82–3.19 μg/g dw), and feathers from China showed significantly lower accumulations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn compared with the other two areas. Overall, most of the studied highly toxic trace element contents in bird feathers from the densely populated and polluted area of eastern China were lower than those from remote polar regions, which are negligibly affected by human activities. In addition, feathers from the Arctic did not show higher highly toxic trace element contents than those of the more remote Antarctic. These results are thus inferred to reflect differences in the dietary structure of birds in the different habitats, as well as historical climate change. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios of feathers were also measured to evaluate the relationship between diet and highly toxic trace elements. Results showed that highly toxic trace element contents did not increase with increasing trophic levels. Moreover, the methylmercury content accounted for 87.57%–98.59% of the total mercury in all feather samples, regardless of location and species, confirming that most of the mercury entering the feathers is methylated. This finding suggests that the form of mercury changes during the process of transference from internal tissues to feathers, which improves our understanding of the mechanism by which feathers excrete mercury, this behavior greatly reduces the harm to bird health caused by mercury. This study confirms that measuring contaminants in feathers is a long-term and effective method for monitoring highly toxic trace elements pollution in particular environments, making future monitoring of highly toxic trace elements pollution in the polar regions, as well as more typical environments, more convenient.

  • Dronning Maud Land, som er Norges territoriale krav i Antarktis, utgjør nærmere 1/6 av det antarktiske kontinentet. Geologisk kartlegging og forskning i Dronning Maud Land er en nasjonal oppgave og i Antarktis-sammenheng kan det betraktes som en måte å vise fortsatt interesse i Norges territoriale krav.

  • Changes in ocean-driven basal melting have a key influence on the stability of ice shelves, the mass loss from the ice sheet, ocean circulation, and global sea level rise. Coupled ice sheet–ocean models play a critical role in understanding future ice sheet evolution and examining the processes governing ice sheet responses to basal melting. However, as a new approach, coupled ice sheet–ocean systems come with new challenges, and the impacts of solutions implemented to date have not been investigated. An emergent feature in several contributing coupled models to the 1st Marine Ice Sheet–Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (MISOMIP1) was a time-varying oscillation in basal melt rates. Here, we use a recently developed coupling framework, FISOC (v1.1), to connect the modified ocean model ROMSIceShelf (v1.0) and ice sheet model Elmer/Ice (v9.0), to investigate the origin and implications of the feature and, more generally, the impact of coupled modeling strategies on the simulated basal melt in an idealized ice shelf cavity based on the MISOMIP setup. We found the spatial-averaged basal melt rates (3.56 m yr−1) oscillated with an amplitude ∼0.7 m yr−1 and approximate period of ∼6 years between year 30 and 100 depending on the experimental design. The melt oscillations emerged in the coupled system and the standalone ocean model using a prescribed change of cavity geometry. We found that the oscillation feature is closely related to the discretized ungrounding of the ice sheet, exposing new ocean, and is likely strengthened by a combination of positive buoyancy–melt feedback and/or melt–geometry feedback near the grounding line, and the frequent coupling of ice geometry and ocean evolution. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that the oscillation feature is always present, regardless of the choice of coupling interval, vertical resolution in the ocean model, tracer properties of cells ungrounded by the retreating ice sheet, or the dependency of friction velocities to the vertical resolution. However, the amplitude, phase, and sub-cycle variability of the oscillation varied significantly across the different configurations. We were unable to ultimately determine whether the feature arises purely due to numerical issues (related to discretization) or a compounding of multiple physical processes amplifying a numerical artifact. We suggest a pathway and choices of physical parameters to help other efforts understand the coupled ice sheet–ocean system using numerical models.

  • AbstractOur study of a banded charnockite complex of the Mühlig-Hofmannfjella in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, illustrates how the combination of high-temperature (re-)crystallization processes, melts, and volatile fluids leads to complex intrusive, metasomatic, and structural relationships. The igneous complex consists of gently dipping sets of charnockite interlayered with dolerite and leucogranite. The banded complex formed primarily by magmatic processes, but with superimposed modifications by metasomatism. The charnockite has a ferroan composition and contains both orthopyroxene (Fs80?84) and olivine (Fa94?96). Zircon U-Pb dates the emplacement of charnockite at 515 Ma, and inherited zircon cores and negative εNd values of ?3 to ?5 indicate that the age of the source of the magma was about 1100 Ma. Neodymium isotopes were not homogenized during the Cambrian magmatic event, which suggests that the generation and emplacement of the magma took place in separate batches during construction of the banded complex. By contrast, the Rb-Sr system in the charnockite was extensively homogenized, likely because of the superimposed late-magmatic fluid activity, which also produced the bands and networks of leucogranites. These events occurred during the late stages of the assembly of Gondwana, with postcollisional extension and mantle upwelling maintaining a high heat flow.

  • The flightless midge Eretmoptera murphyi is thought to be continuing its invasion of Signy Island via the treads of personnel boots. Current boot-wash biosecurity protocols in the Antarctic region rely on microbial biocides, primarily Virkon® S. As pesticides have limited approval for use in the Antarctic Treaty area, we investigated the efficacy of Virkon® S in controlling the spread of E. murphyi using boot-wash simulations and maximum threshold exposures. We found that E. murphyi tolerates over 8 h of submergence in 1% Virkon® S. Higher concentrations increased effectiveness, but larvae still exhibited > 50% survival after 5 h in 10% Virkon® S. Salt and hot water treatments (without Virkon® S) were explored as possible alternatives. Salt water proved ineffective, with mortality only in first-instar larvae across multi-day exposures. Larvae experienced 100% mortality when exposed for 10 s to 50°C water, but they showed complete survival at 45°C. Given that current boot-wash protocols alone are an ineffective control of this invasive insect, we advocate hot water (> 50°C) to remove soil, followed by Virkon® S as a microbial biocide on ‘clean’ boots. Implications for the spread of invasive invertebrates as a result of increased human activity in the Antarctic region are discussed.

  • Continuous atmospheric sampling was conducted between 2010–2015 at Casey station in Wilkes Land, Antarctica, and throughout 2013 at Troll Station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Sample extracts were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the naturally converted brominated compound, 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole, to explore regional profiles. This represents the first report of seasonal resolution of PBDEs in the Antarctic atmosphere, and we describe conspicuous differences in the ambient atmospheric concentrations of brominated compounds observed between the two stations. Notably, levels of BDE-47 detected at Troll station were higher than those previously detected in the Antarctic or Southern Ocean region, with a maximum concentration of 7800 fg/m3. Elevated levels of penta-formulation PBDE congeners at Troll coincided with local building activities and subsided in the months following completion of activities. The latter provides important information for managers of National Antarctic Programs for preventing the release of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances in Antarctica.

  • Fe(II) is more soluble and bioavailable than Fe(III) species, therefore the investigation of their relative abundance and redox processes is relevant to better assess the supply of bioavailable iron to the ocean and its impact on marine productivity. In this context, we present a discrete chemiluminescence-based method for the determination of Fe(II) in firn matrices. The method was applied on discrete samples from a snow pit collected at Dome C (DC, Antarctica) and on a shallow firn core from the Holtedahlfonna glacier (HDF, Svalbard), providing the first Fe(II) record from both Antarctica and Svalbard. The method showed low detection limits (0.006 ng g−1 for DC and 0.003 ng g−1 for the HDF) and a precision ranging from 3% to 20% RSD. Fe(II) concentrations ranged between the LoD and 0.077 ng g−1 and between the LoD and 0.300 ng g−1 for the Antarctic and Arctic samples, respectively. The Fe(II) contribution with respect to the total dissolved Fe was comparable in both sites accounting, on average, for 5% and 3%, respectively. We found that Fe(II) correctly identified the Pinatubo/Cerro Hudson eruption in the DC record, demonstrating its reliability as volcanic tracer, while, on the HDF core, we provided the first preliminary insight on the processes that might influence Fe speciation in firn matrices (i.e. organic ligands and pH influences).

  • Understanding the drivers and effects of exposure to contaminants such as mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Antarctic wildlife is still limited. Yet, Hg and OCs have known physiological and fitness effects in animals, with consequences on their populations. Here we measured total Hg (a proxy of methyl-Hg) in blood cells and feathers, and 12 OCs (seven polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs, and five organochlorine pesticides, OCPs) in plasma of 30 breeding female Antarctic petrels Thalassoica antarctica from one of the largest colonies in Antarctica (Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land). This colony is declining and there is poor documentation on the potential role played by contaminants on individual physiology and fitness. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope values measured in the females' blood cells and feathers served as proxies of their feeding ecology during the pre-laying (austral spring) and moulting (winter) periods, respectively. We document feather Hg concentrations (mean ± SD, 2.41 ± 0.83 μg g−1 dry weight, dw) for the first time in this species. Blood cell Hg concentrations (1.38 ± 0.43 μg g−1 dw) were almost twice as high as those reported in a recent study, and increased with pre-laying trophic position (blood cell δ15N). Moulting trophic ecology did not predict blood Hg concentrations. PCB concentrations were very low (Σ7PCBs, 0.35 ± 0.31 ng g−1 wet weight, ww). Among OCPs, HCB (1.02 ± 0.36 ng g−1 ww) and p, p’-DDE (1.02 ± 1.49 ng g−1 ww) residues were comparable to those of ecologically-similar polar seabirds, while Mirex residues (0.72 ± 0.35 ng g−1 ww) were higher. PCB and OCP concentrations showed no clear relationship with pre-laying or moulting feeding ecology, indicating that other factors overcome dietary drivers. OC residues were inversely related to body condition, suggesting stronger release of OCs into the circulation of egg-laying females upon depletion of their lipid reserves. Egg volume, hatching success, chick body condition and survival were not related to maternal Hg or OC concentrations. Legacy contaminant exposure does not seem to represent a threat for the breeding fraction of this population over the short term. Yet, exposure to contaminants, especially Mirex, and other concurring environmental stressors should be monitored over the long-term in this declining population.

  • Antarctic sea ice has paradoxically become more extensive over the past four decades despite a warming climate. The regional expression of this trend has been linked to changes in vertical redistribution of ocean heat and large-scale wind-field shifts. However, the short length of modern observations has hindered attempts to attribute this trend to anthropogenic forcing or natural variability. Here, we present two new decadal-resolution records of sea ice and sea surface temperatures that document pervasive regional climate heterogeneity in Indian Antarctic sea-ice cover over the last 2,000 years. Data assimilation of our marine records in a climate model suggests that the reconstructed dichotomous regional conditions were driven by the multi-decadal variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode (SAM). For example, during an El Niño/SAM– combination, the northward sea-ice transport was reduced while heat advection from the subtropics to the Southern Ocean increased, which resulted in reduced sea-ice extent in the Indian sector as sea ice was compacted along the Antarctic coast. Our results therefore indicate that natural variability is large in the Southern Ocean and suggest that it has played a crucial role in the recent sea-ice trends and their decadal variability in this region.

  • Survival of larval Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) during winter is largely dependent upon the presence of sea ice as it provides an important source of food and shelter. We hypothesized that sea ice provides additional benefits because it hosts fewer competitors and provides reduced predation risk for krill larvae than the water column. To test our hypothesis, zooplankton were sampled in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence Zone at the ice-water interface (0–2 m) and in the water column (0–500 m) during August–October 2013. Grazing by mesozooplankton, expressed as a percentage of the phytoplankton standing stock, was higher in the water column (1.97 ± 1.84%) than at the ice-water interface (0.08 ± 0.09%), due to a high abundance of pelagic copepods. Predation risk by carnivorous macrozooplankton, expressed as a percentage of the mesozooplankton standing stock, was significantly lower at the ice-water interface (0.83 ± 0.57%; main predators amphipods, siphonophores and ctenophores) than in the water column (4.72 ± 5.85%; main predators chaetognaths and medusae). These results emphasize the important role of sea ice as a suitable winter habitat for larval krill with fewer competitors and lower predation risk. These benefits should be taken into account when considering the response of Antarctic krill to projected declines in sea ice. Whether reduced sea-ice algal production may be compensated for by increased water column production remains unclear, but the shelter provided by sea ice would be significantly reduced or disappear, thus increasing the predation risk on krill larvae.

  • For procellariiform seabirds, wind and morphology are crucial determinants of flight costs and flight speeds. During chick-rearing, parental seabirds commute frequently to provision their chicks, and their body mass typically changes between outbound and return legs. In Antarctica, the characteristic diurnal katabatic winds, which blow stronger in the mornings, form a natural experimental setup to investigate flight behaviors of commuting seabirds in response to wind conditions. We GPS-tracked three closely related species of sympatrically breeding Antarctic fulmarine petrels, which differ in wing loading and aspect ratio, and investigated their flight behavior in response to wind and changes in body mass. Such information is critical for understanding how species may respond to climate change. All three species reached higher ground speeds (i.e., the speed over ground) under stronger tailwinds, especially on return legs from foraging. Ground speeds decreased under stronger headwinds. Antarctic petrels (Thalassoica antarctica; intermediate body mass, highest wing loading, and aspect ratio) responded stronger to changes in wind speed and direction than cape petrels (Daption capense; lowest body mass, wing loading, and aspect ratio) or southern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialoides; highest body mass, intermediate wing loading, and aspect ratio). Birds did not adjust their flight direction in relation to wind direction nor the maximum distance from their nests when encountering headwinds on outbound commutes. However, birds appeared to adjust the timing of commutes to benefit from strong katabatic winds as tailwinds on outbound legs and avoid strong katabatic winds as headwinds on return legs. Despite these adaptations to the predictable diurnal wind conditions, birds frequently encountered unfavorably strong headwinds, possibly as a result of weather systems disrupting the katabatics. How the predicted decrease in Antarctic near-coastal wind speeds over the remainder of the century will affect flight costs and breeding success and ultimately population trajectories remains to be seen.

Last update from database: 3/13/24, 8:06 AM (UTC)

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