Antarktis-bibliografi er en database over den norske Antarktis-litteraturen.

Hensikten med bibliografien er å synliggjøre norsk antarktisforskning og annen virksomhet/historie i det ekstreme sør. Bibliografien er ikke komplett, spesielt ikke for nyere forskning, men den blir oppdatert.

Norsk er her definert som minst én norsk forfatter, publikasjonssted Norge eller publikasjon som har utspring i norsk forskningsprosjekt.

Antarktis er her definert som alt sør for 60 grader. I tillegg har vi tatt med Bouvetøya.

Det er ingen avgrensing på språk (men det meste av innholdet er på norsk eller engelsk). Eldre norske antarktispublikasjoner (den eldste er fra 1894) er dominert av kvalfangst og ekspedisjoner. I nyere tid er det den internasjonale polarforskninga som dominerer. Bibliografien er tverrfaglig; den dekker både naturvitenskapene, politikk, historie osv. Skjønnlitteratur er også inkludert, men ikke avisartikler eller upublisert materiale.

Til høyre finner du en «HELP-knapp» for informasjon om søkemulighetene i databasen. Mange referanser har lett synlige lenker til fulltekstversjon av det aktuelle dokumentet. For de fleste tidsskriftartiklene er det også lagt inn sammendrag.

Bibliografien er produsert ved Norsk Polarinstitutts bibliotek.


Full bibliography 2,812 resources

  • The past six years have been marked by some of the most dramatic climatic events observed in the Antarctic region in recent history, commencing with the 2017 sea-ice extreme low. The Humpback Whale Sentinel Programme is a circum-polar biomonitoring program for long term surveillance of the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. It has previously signalled the extreme La Niña event of 2010/11, and it was therefore of interest to assess the capacity of existing biomonitoring measures under the program to detect the impacts of 2017 anomalous climatic events. Six ecophysiological markers of population adiposity, diet, and fecundity were targeted, as well as calf and juvenile mortality via stranding records. All indicators, with the exception of bulk stable isotope dietary tracers, indicated a negative trend in 2017, whilst C and N bulk stable isotopes appeared to indicate a lag phase resulting from the anomalous year. The collation of multiple biochemical, chemical, and observational lines of evidence via a single biomonitoring platform provides comprehensive information for evidence-led policy in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region.

  • Numerous novel adaptations characterise the radiation of notothenioids, the dominant fish group in the freezing seas of the Southern Ocean. To improve understanding of the evolution of this iconic fish group, here we generate and analyse new genome assemblies for 24 species covering all major subgroups of the radiation, including five long-read assemblies. We present a new estimate for the onset of the radiation at 10.7 million years ago, based on a time-calibrated phylogeny derived from genome-wide sequence data. We identify a two-fold variation in genome size, driven by expansion of multiple transposable element families, and use the long-read data to reconstruct two evolutionarily important, highly repetitive gene family loci. First, we present the most complete reconstruction to date of the antifreeze glycoprotein gene family, whose emergence enabled survival in sub-zero temperatures, showing the expansion of the antifreeze gene locus from the ancestral to the derived state. Second, we trace the loss of haemoglobin genes in icefishes, the only vertebrates lacking functional haemoglobins, through complete reconstruction of the two haemoglobin gene clusters across notothenioid families. Both the haemoglobin and antifreeze genomic loci are characterised by multiple transposon expansions that may have driven the evolutionary history of these genes.

  • Ongoing studies conducted in northern polar regions reveal that permafrost stability plays a key role in the modern carbon cycle as it potentially stores considerable quantities of greenhouse gases. Rapid and recent warming of the Arctic permafrost is resulting in significant greenhouse gas emissions, both from physical and microbial processes. The potential impact of greenhouse gas release from the Antarctic region has not, to date, been investigated. In Antarctica, the McMurdo Dry Valleys comprise 10 % of the ice-free soil surface areas in Antarctica and like the northern polar regions are also warming albeit at a slower rate. The work presented herein examines a comprehensive sample suite of soil gas (e.g., CO2, CH4 and He) concentrations and CO2 flux measurements conducted in Taylor Valley during austral summer 2019/2020. Analytical results reveal the presence of significant concentrations of CO2, CH4 and He (up to 3.44 vol%, 18,447 ppmv and 6.49 ppmv, respectively) at the base of the active layer. When compared with the few previously obtained measurements, we observe increased CO2 flux rates (estimated CO2 emissions in the study area of 21.6 km2 ≈ 15 tons day−1). We suggest that the gas source is connected with the deep brines migrating from inland (potentially from beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet) towards the coast beneath the permafrost layer. These data provide a baseline for future investigations aimed at monitoring the changing rate of greenhouse gas emissions from Antarctic permafrost, and the potential origin of gases, as the southern polar region warms.

  • Signed in 1959, the Antarctic Treaty is usually hailed as an example of what states can achieve when they leave aside their interests and truly collaborate. It was over 30?years ago, however, that the last significant legal instrument of the Antarctic Treaty System (namely, the Protocol on Environmental Protection) was signed. Since then, no new legal instruments have been drafted, despite a number of growing internal and external challenges. In this special issue, an interdisciplinary group of scholars examine some of these challenges and evaluate whether the system is well prepared to tackle them. Their point of agreement is that, if not severely ill, the system's chronic ailments?particularly laggardness?must be addressed if it is to respond satisfactorily to rapid social, political, environmental and economic changes on a global scale.

  • A dataset to describe exposed bedrock and surficial geology of Antarctica has been constructed by the GeoMAP Action Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and GNS Science. Our group captured existing geological map data into a geographic information system (GIS), refined its spatial reliability, harmonised classification, and improved representation of glacial sequences and geomorphology, thereby creating a comprehensive and coherent representation of Antarctic geology. A total of 99,080 polygons were unified for depicting geology at 1:250,000 scale, but locally there are some areas with higher spatial resolution. Geological unit definition is based on a mixed chronostratigraphic- and lithostratigraphic-based classification. Description of rock and moraine polygons employs the international Geoscience Markup Language (GeoSciML) data protocols to provide attribute-rich and queryable information, including bibliographic links to 589 source maps and scientific literature. GeoMAP is the first detailed geological map dataset covering all of Antarctica. It depicts ‘known geology’ of rock exposures rather than ‘interpreted’ sub-ice features and is suitable for continent-wide perspectives and cross-discipline interrogation.

  • Understanding how climate change influences ocean-driven melting of the Antarctic ice shelves is one of the greatest challenges for projecting future sea level rise. The East Antarctic ice shelf cavities host cold water masses that limit melting, and only a few short-term observational studies exist on what drives warm water intrusions into these cavities. We analyse nine years of continuous oceanographic records from below Fimbulisen and relate them to oceanic and atmospheric forcing. On monthly time scales, warm inflow events are associated with weakened coastal easterlies reducing downwelling in front of the ice shelf. Since 2016, however, we observe sustained warming, with inflowing Warm Deep Water temperatures reaching above 0 °C. This is concurrent with an increase in satellite-derived basal melt rates of 0.62 m yr−1, which nearly doubles the basal mass loss at this relatively cold ice shelf cavity. We find that this transition is linked to a reduction in coastal sea ice cover through an increase in atmosphere–ocean momentum transfer and to a strengthening of remote subpolar westerlies. These results imply that East Antarctic ice shelves may become more exposed to warmer waters with a projected increase of circum-Antarctic westerlies, increasing this region’s relevance for sea level rise projections.

  • In 1981, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research endorsed a program for ship-based collection of Antarctic iceberg data, to be coordinated by the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI). From the austral summers 1982/1983 to 1997/1998, icebergs were recorded from most, and up to 2009/10 by fewer research vessels. The NPI database makes up 80% of the SCAR International Iceberg Database presented here, the remainder being Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition observations. The database contains positions of 374 142 icebergs resulting from 34 662 observations. Within these, 298 235 icebergs are classified into different size categories. The ship-based data are particularly useful because they include systematic observations of smaller icebergs not covered by current satellite-based datasets. Here, we assess regional and seasonal variations in iceberg density and total quantities, we identify drift patterns and exit zones from the continent, and we discuss iceberg dissolution rates and calving rates. There are significant differences in the extent of icebergs observed over the 30 plus years of observations, but much of these can be ascribed to differences in observation density and location. In the summer, Antarctic icebergs >10 m in length number ~130 000 of which 1000 are found north of the Southern Ocean boundary.

  • As the climate warms, the grounded ice sheet and floating ice shelves surrounding Antarctica are melting and releasing additional freshwater into the Southern Ocean. Nonetheless, almost all existing coupled climate models have fixed ice sheets and lack the physics required to represent the dominant sources of Antarctic melt. These missing ice dynamics represent a key uncertainty that is typically unaccounted for in current global climate change projections. Previous modelling studies that have imposed additional Antarctic meltwater have demonstrated regional impacts on Southern Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice, as well as remote changes in atmospheric circulation, tropical precipitation, and global temperature. However, these previous studies have used widely varying rates of freshwater forcing, have been conducted using different climate models and configurations, and have reached differing conclusions on the magnitude of meltwater–climate feedbacks. The Southern Ocean Freshwater Input from Antarctica (SOFIA) initiative brings together a team of scientists to quantify the climate system response to Antarctic meltwater input along with key aspects of the uncertainty. In this paper, we summarize the state of knowledge on meltwater discharge from the Antarctic ice sheet and ice shelves to the Southern Ocean and explain the scientific objectives of our initiative. We propose a series of coupled and ocean–sea ice model experiments, including idealized meltwater experiments, historical experiments with observationally consistent meltwater input, and future scenarios driven by meltwater inputs derived from stand-alone ice sheet models. Through coordinating a multi-model ensemble of simulations using a common experimental design, open data archiving, and facilitating scientific collaboration, SOFIA aims to move the community toward better constraining our understanding of the climate system response to Antarctic melt.

  • While Argentine-Chilean relations have long been swayed between cooperation and confrontation since their independence in the 19th century and a long-standing presence in Antarctica, the stretch between Tierra del Fuego to the Antarctic Peninsula stands as the closest lane (i.e. about 1,000 km) to any other continent. Despite their territorial dispute over islands on the fractured southern tip of South America and territorial claims on the Antarctic, their common diplo-matic ground successfully defuses any potential geopolitical instability. Along with Chile and Argentina, British claims overlap in the Antarctic Peninsula, which establishes unique geopolitical conditions in the whole of Antarctica. In this context, scientific missions and growing tourist activities could transform the region into the Antarctic gateway. From potential mineral resources exploitation to the United States- China global competition, the South Atlantic area could become a strategic bridgehead in light of the brewing geopolitical shift during the 21st century. Considering that climate change and geostrategic conditions evolve somewhat quickly to transform the Western Antarctic area, this article aims to assess and comprehend how these external drivers may affect the two South American countries. Given the fact that Antarctica is part of their respective national narrative, how do Argentina and Chile intend to maintain their presence and protect their interest in these shifting conditions? What are the vectors for partnering with the world’s great powers, such as China? Ultimately, could this space become a choke point through the 21st century?

  • Det var det første norske oljeeventyret. I dag snakker ingen om det. I drøye hundre år etter at Svend Foyn oppfant granatharpunen i 1863, var Norge pådriver, innovatør og profitør i den største nedslaktingen av ville dyr verden noensinne har sett: Den globale industrielle hvalfangsten. Norge utviklet teknologi, åpnet nye fangstfelt og arbeidet internasjonalt for å hindre regulering og begrensninger. Da hvalfangstens epoke var over, var nesten ingen igjen av hvalene som hadde fylt verdenshavene. I dypet rådet en ny stillhet. Langs strendene i Sørishavet lå bare de råtnende hvalskrottene igjen. Men de norske hvalfangstrederne hadde blitt rike. Vanlige norske arbeidere bemannet den norske hvalfangstindustriens hvalkokerier og hvalbåter. For disse mennene var arbeidet slit, eventyr og mareritt. Etter dem finnes et stort materiale - fotografier, dagbøker, brev - som forteller om arbeidernes erfaringer fra slaktesonene i Sørishavet. I Utryddelsen forteller Espen Ytreberg historien om den norske hvalfangsten fra arbeidernes perspektiv. Han tar oss med på fangsten, lar oss følge arbeidernes opplevelser, setter bildene og beretningene deres inn i en større historisk sammenheng. Utryddelsen er et enestående stykke historieskriving om et avgjørende kapittel i norsk historie - en bok som åpner den nære norske fortiden opp for oss på helt nye måter.

  • Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in Antarctic wildlife, with high levels in the avian top predator south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). As increasing PFAS concentrations were found in the south polar skua during the breeding season in Antarctica, we hypothesised that available prey during the breeding period contributes significantly to the PFAS contamination in skuas. To test this, we compared PFAS in south polar skuas and their main prey from two breeding sites on opposite sides of the Antarctic continent: Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) stomach content, eggs, chicks, and adults from Svarthamaren in Dronning Maud Land and Adélie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Dumont d’Urville in Adélie Land. Of the 22 PFAS analysed, seven were present in the majority of samples, except petrel stomach content [only perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA) present] and Adélie penguins (only four compounds present), with increasing concentrations from the prey to the skuas. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) were higher at Dumont d’Urville than Svarthamaren. When adjusted to reflect one trophic level difference, the BMFs at Svarthamaren remained the same, whereas the ones at Dumont d’Urville doubled. At both the colonies, the skua PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by PFUnA, but differed with the presence of branched PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoate (PFTeA) and lack of perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at Dumont d’Urville. At Svarthamaren, the pattern in the prey was comparable to the skuas, but with a higher relative contribution of PFTeA in prey. At Dumont d’Urville, the pattern in the prey differed from the skuas, with the domination of PFUnA and the general lack of PFOS in prey. Even though the PFAS levels are low in Antarctic year-round resident prey, the three lines of evidence (pattern, BMF difference, and BMF adjusted to one trophic level) suggest that the Antarctic petrel are the significant source of PFAS in the Svarthamaren skuas, whereas the skuas in Dumont d’Urville have other important sources to PFAS than Adélie penguin, either in the continent or external on the inter-breeding foraging grounds far from Antarctica.

  • Global warming is affecting the population dynamics and trophic interactions across a wide range of ecosystems and habitats. Translating these real-time effects into their long-term consequences remains a challenge. The rapid and extreme warming period that occurred after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition (7–12 thousand years ago) provides an opportunity to gain insights into the long-term responses of natural populations to periods with global warming. The effects of this post-LGM warming period have been assessed in many terrestrial taxa, whereas insights into the impacts of rapid global warming on marine taxa remain limited, especially for megafauna. In order to understand how large-scale climate fluctuations during the post-LGM affected baleen whales and their prey, we conducted an extensive, large-scale analysis of the long-term effects of the post-LGM warming on abundance and inter-ocean connectivity in eight baleen whale and seven prey (fish and invertebrates) species across the Southern and the North Atlantic Ocean; two ocean basins that differ in key oceanographic features. The analysis was based upon 7032 mitochondrial DNA sequences as well as genome-wide DNA sequence variation in 100 individuals. The estimated temporal changes in genetic diversity during the last 30,000 years indicated that most baleen whale populations underwent post-LGM expansions in both ocean basins. The increase in baleen whale abundance during the Holocene was associated with simultaneous changes in their prey and climate. Highly correlated, synchronized and exponential increases in abundance in both baleen whales and their prey in the Southern Ocean were indicative of a dramatic increase in ocean productivity. In contrast, the demographic fluctuations observed in baleen whales and their prey in the North Atlantic Ocean were subtle, varying across taxa and time. Perhaps most important was the observation that the ocean-wide expansions and decreases in abundance that were initiated by the post-LGM global warming, continued for millennia after global temperatures stabilized, reflecting persistent, long-lasting impacts of global warming on marine fauna.

  • Mesoscale eddies shape the foraging ecology of predators such as marine mammals and seabirds. A growing number of animal tracking studies show that predators alter their swimming, diving, and foraging behavior within mesoscale eddies. However, little is known about how Southern Ocean eddies influence the distribution of mesopelagic micronekton (fish, squid, and crustaceans), which are major prey items of megafauna. Studies in other oceanic regions have found that eddies can influence the abundance and community composition of micronekton. Here, we analyze acoustic observations from a 14-day survey of a cyclonic mesoscale eddy, its surrounding waters, and the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) waters where the eddy formed. We report and interpret spatial patterns of acoustic backscatter at 18 and 75 kHz, proxies indicating combined changes in species, size, and abundance of micronekton. We find that the vertical distribution of acoustic backscatter matched the underwater light conditions characteristic of the eddy core, periphery, and surrounding waters, at scales smaller than 10 km. The median water-column integrated acoustic backscatter values in the eddy core were only half of those measured in the Sub-Antarctic Zone waters surrounding the eddy, but similar to those measured in the PFZ, where the eddy originated 27 days prior. These results suggest that, as for physical and chemical tracers, the eddy maintained its biological characteristics from its source waters creating a unique habitat compared to its surroundings.

  • Individual heterogeneity in foraging behaviour determines how individuals and populations respond to changes in the availability and distribution of resources. Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a pivotal species in Southern Ocean food webs and an important target for Southern Ocean fisheries. Changes in its abundance could dramatically impact marine predators, with effects depending on the extent to which all individuals rely on krill as prey. The Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica is a high latitude seabird thought to be dependent on krill in part of its breeding range. Here, by combining fine-scale GPS tracking of petrel foraging trips with diet data, we examined the level and consistency of inter-individual variation in foraging strategies in breeding Antarctic petrels in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and assessed whether all individuals share a similar reliance on Antarctic krill. We found that Antarctic petrels showed high levels of repeatability in their diet and foraging movements at sea, indicating consistent individual differences in foraging strategies. During consecutive foraging trips, petrels tend to make trips of similar lengths and durations to reach similar terminal locations and to feed on similar prey. These individual differences in diet were spatially structured, with individuals travelling towards the west consuming a more fish-based diet. These different foraging tactics did not appear to be associated with different costs and/or benefits as adult body mass, chick survival and chick growth were unrelated to birds’ foraging movements and diet. Our results show that, even if a large part of the population may be dependent on krill, some individuals specialize on fish. Such inter-individual variation in foraging suggests that this population could be more resilient to changes in the marine environment, such as a decline in krill abundance or a shift in krill distributions.

  • Tafoni are a type of cavernous weathering that is found in a variety of rock types and locations around the world. Tafoni have been documented in a number of climatic zones ranging from hot and cold deserts to moist coastal environments. Despite the widespread distribution of tafoni, the major processes controlling tafoni weathering are not well understood and are still a matter of discussion. This study addresses the frequent distribution of well-developed tafoni in the cold, arid environment of the inland mountain range of central Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The aim is to document and characterize the nature of tafoni present in Gjelsvikfjella (2°E) eastward to Filchnerfjella (8°E) and to discuss formation processes. The cavities occur in groups and are typically spherical to oval shaped. They range in diameter and depth from 1 dm up to 1.5 m. The cold, arid environment of this region favors mechanical weathering mechanisms such as freeze-thaw actions and wind abrasion. Furthermore, the structural, textural, and mineralogical properties of the parent rock can potentially have a strong control on weathering and cavity development. Observed tafoni are typically formed in massive granitoid intrusives and granitic gneisses and migmatites. Chemical dissolution of pyroxene to iddingsite and radiation from rare earth element–bearing accessory minerals cause microfracturing, which facilitates freeze-thaw actions and accordingly enhances the weathering.

  • We investigated mass balance changes over five ice rises in the last few decades near Fimbul and Nivl ice shelves in central Dronning Maud Land. We use the Input-Output Method constrained using field-based geophysical measurements conducted during the austral summers of 2012–14 over three ice rises near the Fimbul Ice Shelf. Further, we use satellite altimetry data (ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2) to estimate geodetic mass balance over all five ice rises in recent decades. Both field- and satellite-based estimates show that until 2010, three out of five ice rises were thickening (0.4–0.2 m<sub>ieq</sub> a<sup>−1</sup>) while two were close to balance. However, over the last decade, the ice rises thickening previously started to thin (−0.2–−0.6 m<sub>ieq</sub> a<sup>−1</sup>) while the other two remained close to balance. Much of this variability is likely associated with regional surface mass balance trends, with each ice rise exhibiting its characteristics depending on its local glaciological settings.

  • Systematic long-term studies on ecosystem dynamics are largely lacking from the East Antarctic Southern Ocean, although it is well recognized that they are indispensable to identify the ecological impacts and risks of environmental change. Here, we present a framework for establishing a long-term cross-disciplinary study on decadal timescales. We argue that the eastern Weddell Sea and the adjacent sea to the east, off Dronning Maud Land, is a particularly well suited area for such a study, since it is based on findings from previous expeditions to this region. Moreover, since climate and environmental change have so far been comparatively muted in this area, as in the eastern Antarctic in general, a systematic long-term study of its environmental and ecological state can provide a baseline of the current situation, which will be important for an assessment of future changes from their very onset, with consistent and comparable time series data underpinning and testing models and their projections. By establishing an Integrated East Antarctic Marine Research (IEAMaR) observatory, long-term changes in ocean dynamics, geochemistry, biodiversity, and ecosystem functions and services will be systematically explored and mapped through regular autonomous and ship-based synoptic surveys. An associated long-term ecological research (LTER) programme, including experimental and modelling work, will allow for studying climate-driven ecosystem changes and interactions with impacts arising from other anthropogenic activities. This integrative approach will provide a level of long-term data availability and ecosystem understanding that are imperative to determine, understand, and project the consequences of climate change and support a sound science-informed management of future conservation efforts in the Southern Ocean.

  • Fine-scale knowledge of spatiotemporal dynamics in cetacean distribution and abundance throughout the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is sparse yet essential for effective ecosystem-based management (EBM). Cruise vessels were used as platforms of opportunity to collect data on the distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) during the austral summer of 2019/2020 in a region that is also important for the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery, to assess potential spatiotemporal interactions for future use in EBM. Data were analyzed using traditional design-based line transect methodology and spatial density surface hurdle models fitted using a set of physical environmental covariates to estimate the abundance and distribution of whales in the area, and to describe their temporal dynamics. Our results indicate a rapid increase in humpback whale abundance in the Bransfield and Gerlache Straits through December, reaching a stable abundance by mid-January. The distribution of humpback whales appeared to change from a patchier distribution in the northern Gerlache Strait to a significantly concentrated presence in the central Gerlache and southern Bransfield Straits, followed by a subsequent dispersion throughout the area. Abundance estimates agreed well with previous literature, increasing from approximately 7000 individuals in 2000 to a peak of 19,107 in 2020. Based on these estimates, we project a total krill consumption of between 1.4 and 3.7 million tons based on traditional and contemporary literature on per capita krill consumption of whales, respectively. When taken in the context of krill fishery catch data in the study area, we conclude that there is minimal spatiotemporal overlap between humpback whales and fishery activity during our study period of November–January. However, there is potential for significant interaction between the two later in the feeding season, but cetacean survey efforts need to be extended into late season in order to fully characterize this potential overlap.

  • Bycatch of nontarget species can contribute to overfishing and slow efforts to rebuild fish stocks. Controlling bycatch is fundamental to sustainable fishing and maintaining healthy populations of target species. The Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery is the largest volume fishery in the Southern Ocean. Understanding the significance of bycatch and its diversity is critical to managing this keystone species. Registered bycatch data from the Antarctic krill fishery in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean were analysed. Observers collected data following an internationally agreed method during the 2010–2020 fishing seasons, with a 20 (± 9) % coverage of fishing activity of Total catch of Antarctic krill which increased from 200,000 tonnes to 450,000 tonnes, with the greatest increase over the last 3 years. Except in 2010 (2.2%), the bycatch ratio was stable and ranged 0.1–0.3%. Fish dominated the bycatch, followed by tunicates and other crustaceans. Observer coverage was high, and bycatch levels were generally low across gear types. Given that accurate information on bycatch is important for sustaining developing fisheries, maintaining high observer coverage of this fishery will be important for detecting impacts from a warming climate and for moving back into historical fishing grounds.

Last update from database: 3/13/24, 8:06 AM (UTC)



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